Designing the substation of the future will require an excellent understanding of primary and secondary equipment in the substation, the transformation of primary system parameters to secondary quantities used by multifunctional intelligent electronic devices (IEDs), and the availability of new types of sensors (such as non-conventional current and voltage instrument transformers) that eliminate many of the issues related to conventional instrument transformers.

The electric power industry is changing and the design of substations is changing right along with it. Driven by more strict reliability requirements, as well as significant technology developments, a new concept for the substation of the future has emerged.

The substation of the future will be based on an object-oriented modular approach that will cover the design of the substation primary system, the IEDs providing protection, control, measurements, recording and other functions, as well as their integration in substation automation systems with advanced functionality. It should include solutions for a technically compliant system design that meets new and emerging grid connection requirements and solutions for integrating wind farms or other distributed energy resources in the power grid. These solutions include, but are not limited to, HVAC or HVDC (High Voltage Alternating Current or High Voltage Direct Current) connections; SVCs (Static VAR Compensator) or STATCOMs (an SVC based on Gate-Turn-Off Thyristor technology); switchgear and transformers.

Upgrades of existing substations and construction of new substations in urban areas with limited space availability will also result in an increase in the number of gas insulated substations (GIS) built worldwide.

Considering the fact that more and more substations will be installed in locations that may have extreme climate conditions, both the primary and secondary devices must be able to operate correctly under all weather conditions.

The publication of IEC 61850, the new international standard for substation communications, is an extremely important step in the definition of the “copper-less” substation of the future and will have the greatest impact on future substation design. Distributed substation applications based on high-speed peer-to-peer communications of change of state of breakers, protection and control functional elements or current and voltage sampled values will lead to very efficient and at the same time functionally superior substation solutions.

IEC 61850 defines not only the object models of primary substation equipment, IEDs and functions in a substation automation system, but also the relationship and communications between system components based on the different system requirements. It is very important to understand that just because one can model a function in a device or substation automation system does not mean that the standard attempts to standardize the functions. There are so many different algorithms and characteristics used for different functions (for example a distance protection element), as well as preferences and options, that this will be an extremely difficult task. Instead, the model represents the communications visible attributes and behavior of the device. This is sufficient for the development and implementation of engineering, testing, analysis, integration and other tools that will result in the introduction of real power system engineering automation.

It is important also to remember that the changing technology introduces new methods for interface between the instrument transformers or sensors and the substation IEDs. They need to be able to interface with conventional and non-conventional sensors to allow the implementation of the system in different substation environments.

A simplified diagram with the communications architecture of an IEC 61850 process and substation bus-based substation automation system is shown in Fig. 1 (pg. 23).

Click here to enlarge image

The merging unit (MU) interfaces with the process through conventional or non-conventional instrument transformers, generates and multicasts sets of measured sampled values to multiple IEDs in the substation over the substation local area network. In IEC 61850 this is called the “process bus.” Status information for breakers and switches is available through an input/output unit (I/O). In some cases the merging unit and the input/output unit can be combined in a single device that we may call a process interface unit (PIU).

The receiving devices (IEDs or industrial grade computers) then process the data, make decisions and take action based on their functionality. The action of protection and control devices in this case will be to operate their relay outputs or to send a high-speed peer-to-peer communications message over the station bus to other IEDs in order to trip a breaker or initiate some other control function, such as breaker failure protection, reclosing, etc.

All devices and functions in the substation exchange real-time or reporting/analysis data based on the object models defined in IEC 61850. The modeling of complex multifunctional IEDs from different vendors that are also part of distributed functions requires the definition of basic elements that can function by themselves or communicate with each other. These communications can be between the elements within the same physical device or in the case of distributed functions (such as substation protection schemes) between multiple devices over the substation local area network. The basic functional elements defined in IEC 61850 and used in the modeling of the devices in the substation are the logical nodes.

A logical node is “the smallest part of a function that exchanges data.” Multiple instances of different logical nodes become components of different local or distributed protection, control, monitoring and other functions in a substation automation system.

IEC 61850 also allows the development of a new range of protection and control applications that result in significant benefits beyond the conventional hard-wired solutions in today’s typical substation. It supports interoperability between protective relays and control devices from different manufacturers in the substation, which is a necessity in order to achieve substation-level interlocking, protection and control functions and improve the efficiency of microprocessor-based relays applications.

There is consensus in the industry that high-speed peer-to-peer communications between IEDs connected to the substation LAN based on exchange of generic substation event (GSE) messages can successfully replace hard-wiring for different protection and control applications, such as the protection of distribution buses, distributed recording or load-shedding in substations with varying configuration.

Sampled measured values communicated from merging units to different protection and control devices connected to the substation process bus replace the copper wiring between the instrument transformers in the substation yard and the IEDs.

As a result, future substations based on IEC 61850 communications will provide some significant advantages over conventional protection and control systems used to perform the same functions in the substations. They will require reduced wiring, installation, maintenance and commissioning costs; and they will adapt easily to changing bus configuration in the substation.

The substation configuration language allows interoperability and a seamless integration process. The common substation or IED configuration files can be exchanged between different configuration, coordination, analysis or testing tools in a way that significantly improves the efficiency of the engineering process.

The modern definition of a robot can be an electro-mechanical device which follows a set of instructions to carry out certain jobs, but literally robot means a ‘slave’. Robots find wide application in industries and thus are called there as industrial robots and also in sci-fi movies as humanoids. This and coming articles will provide an introduction to the Robotics.
Robotics and Automation

When we think about robotics first thing that come to our mind is automation. Robots are known to perform tasks automatically without much human intervention, except for initial programming and instruction set being provided to them. The first machine, what I have seen in my childhood when we were on a visit to a milk processing plant, most close, to be called as a robot was a milk packaging machine. There was roll of packaging material running through the machine, each time half a liter of milk falls into the roll and then a mechanism in the machine seals and cuts the packet.

This machine can be a simple example of a very basic robot. It performs the specified sequence of operations repeatedly with the same accuracy. It was programmed and provided with the required material and then started.
Advancements in Robotics

The more advanced versions of robots seen now-a-days can perform operations adaptively, that is, changing the dimensions and other settings according to the requirements. One such advanced example of an adaptive robot is a stitching machine which can read the different dimensions of dress size on the personal card of a person and then cut the desired dress material and stitch it to the size fitting to the person.

From a broad view, robotics is actually the continuous endeavor of robotics engineers to make machines capable of performing tasks as delicately as human can do and also the complicated, tough and repeated tasks which humans would prefer not to do. The advancements in the field robotics are made possible by use of microprocessors and microcontrollers with the intelligent combination of them with servo motors, sensors and actuators.
Robotics: Future Scope

Now the scope of robotics has widened and the robots which can only work on preprogrammed instructions irrespective of the environments they are working in are soon going to become outdated. The robots which are being developed these days can sense their surroundings and behave according to what they sense and make judgments on their own to how to respond. Far are not the days when robots would even sense and respond to feelings and could even express how they feel.

Nowadays, computer control is one of the most cost effective solutions for improving reliability, optimum operation, intelligent control and protection of a power system network. Having advanced data collection capabilities, SCADA system plays a significant role in power system operation.

SCADA Systems for Electrical Distribution

Typically, at distribution side SCADA does more than simply collecting data by automating entire distribution network and facilitating remote monitoring, coordinate, control and operating distribution components just like in Smart Grid System.

Before knowing distribution automation using SCADA, let us look at what exactly SCADA is and its functioning and what they do in the distribution system.

What is SCADA?

What is SCADA?

Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition or simply SCADA is one of the solutions available for data acquisition, monitor and control systems covering large geographical areas. It refers to the combination of data acquisition and telemetry.

SCADA MAster Control Station Center

SCADA systems are mainly used for the implementation of monitoring and control system of an equipment or a plant in several industries like power plants, oil and gas refining, water and waste control, telecommunications, etc.

SCADA in Distribution System

In this system, measurements are made under field or process level in a plant by number of remote terminal units and then data are transferred to the SCADA central host computer so that more complete process or manufacturing information can be provided remotely.

This system displays the received data on number of operator screens and conveys back the necessary control actions to the remote terminal units in process plant.

Components of Typical SCADA System

The major components in SCADA system are

Remote Terminal Units (RTUs)

RTU is the main component in SCADA system that has a direct connection with various sensors, meters and actuators associated with a control environment.

These RTUs are nothing but real-time programmable logic controllers (PLCs) which are responsible for properly converting remote station information to digital form for modem to transmit the data and also converts the received signals from master unit in order to control the process equipment through actuators and switchboxes.

Master Terminal Units (MTUs)

A central host servers or server is called Master Terminal Unit, sometimes it is also called as SCADA center. It communicates with several RTUs by performing reading and writing operations during scheduled scanning. In addition, it performs control, alarming, networking with other nodes, etc.

Communications System

The communication network transfers data among central host computer servers and the field data interface devices & control units. The medium of transfer can be cable, radio, telephone, satellite, etc. or any combination of these.

Operator Workstations

These are the computer terminals consisting of standard HMI (Human Machine Interface) software and are networked with a central host computer. These workstations are operator terminals that request and send the information to host client computer in order to monitor and control the remote field parameters.

Automation of Electrical Distribution System

SCADA Distribution Automation

Modern SCADA systems replace the manual labor to perform electrical distribution tasks and manual processes in distribution systems with automated equipments. SCADA maximizes the efficiency of power distribution system by providing the features like real-time view into the operations, data trending and logging, maintaining desired voltages, currents and power factors, generating alarms, etc.

SCADA performs automatic monitoring, protecting and controlling of various equipments in distribution systems with the use of Intelligent Electronic Devices (or RTUs). It restores the power service during fault condition and also maintains the desired operating conditions.

SCADA improves the reliability of supply by reducing duration of outages and also gives the cost-effective operation of distribution system. Therefore, distribution SCADA supervises the entire electrical distribution system. The major functions of SCADA can be categorized into following types.

  • Substation Control
  • Feeder Control
  • End User Load Control

Also read: Fault Current Limiter and Their Types

Substation Control using SCADA

In substation automation system, SCADA performs the operations like bus voltage control, bus load balancing, circulating current control, overload control, transformer fault protection, bus fault protection, etc.

Substation Control using SCADA

SCADA system continuously monitors the status of various equipments in substation and accordingly sends control signals to the remote control equipments. Also, it collects the historical data of the substation and generates the alarms in the event of electrical accidents or faults.

The above figure shows the typical SCADA based substation control system. Various input/output (I/O) modules connected to the substation equipment gathers the field parameters data, including status of switches, circuit breakers, transformers, capacitors and batteries, voltage and current magnitudes, etc. RTUs collect I/O data and transfers to remote master unit via network interface modules.

The central control or master unit receives and logs the information, displays on HMI and generate the control actions based on received data. This central controller also responsible for generating trend analysis, centralized alarming, and reporting.

The data historian, workstations, master terminal unit and communications servers are connected by LAN at the control center. A Wide Area Network (WAN) connection with standard protocol communication is used to transfer the information between field sites and central controller.

Thus, by implementing SCADA for substation control eventually improves the reliability of the network and minimizes the downtime with high speed transfer of measurements and control commands.

Also read: Why Nuclear Power is It The Last Option in Most Countries?

Feeder Control using SCADA

This automation includes feeder voltage or VAR control and feeder automatic switching. Feeder voltage control performs voltage regulation and capacitor placement operations while feeder switching deals with remote switching of various feeders, detection of faults, identifying fault location, isolating operation and restoration of service.

Feeder Control using SCADA

In this system, SCADA architecture continuously checks the faults and their location by using wireless fault detector units deployed at various feeding stations. In addition, it facilitates the remote circuit switching and historical data collection of feeder parameters and their status. The figure below illustrates feeder automation using SCADA.

In the above typical SCADA network, different feeders (underground as well as overhead networks) are automated with modular and integrated devices in order to decrease the number and duration of outages. Underground and overhead fault detection devices provide accurate information about transient and permanent faults so that at the remote side preventive and corrective measures can be performed in order to reduce the fault repeatability.

Ring main units and Remote Control Units (RTUs) of underground and overhead network responsible for maintenance and operational duties such as remote load switching, capacitor bank insertion and voltage regulation. The entire network is connected with a communication medium in order to facilitate remote energy management at the central monitoring station.

Also read: Primary and Secondary or Backup protection in a Power System

End User Load Control Automation by SCADA

End User Load Control Automation by SCADA (AMR)

This type of automation at user end side implements functions like remote load control, automatic meter reading and billing generation, etc. It provides the energy consumption by the large consumers and appropriate pricing on demand or time slots wise. Also detects energy meter tampering and theft and accordingly disconnects the remote service. Once the problem is resolved, it reconnects the service.

The above figure shows a centralized meter data-management system using SCADA. It is an easy and cost-effective solution for automating the energy meter data for billing purpose.

In this, smart meters with a communication unit extract the energy consumption information and made it available to a central control room as well as local data storage unit. At the central control room, AMR control unit automatically retrieves, stores and converts all meter data.

Modems or communication devices at each meter provide secure two-way communication between central control and monitoring room and remote sites.

Also read: Comparison between AC and DC Transmission System

Advantages of Implementing SCADA systems for Electrical Distribution

  • Due to timely recognition of faults, equipment damage can be avoided
  • Continuous monitoring and control of distribution network is performed from remote locations
  • Saves labor cost by eliminating manual operation of distribution equipment
  • Reduce the outage time by a system-wide monitoring and generating alarms so as to address problems quickly
  • Improves the continuity of service by restoring service after the occurrence of faults (temporary)
  • Automatically improves the voltage profile by power factor correction and VAR control
  • Facilitates the view of historian data in various ways
  • Reduces the labor cost by reducing the staff required for meter reading

Programmable Logic Controller (PLC), also referred to as programmable controller, is the name given to a type of computer commonly used in commercial and industrial control applications.


Siemens PLC training in hyderabad


PLCs differ from office computers in the types of tasks that they perform and the hardware and software they require to perform these tasks.

While the specific applications vary widely, all PLCs monitor inputs and other variable values, make decisions based on a stored program, and control outputs to automate a process or machine. This course is meant to supply you with basic information on the functions and configurations of PLCs with emphasis on the S7-200 PLC family.


Basic PLC operation

The basic elements of a PLC include input modules or points, a Central Processing Unit (CPU)output modules or points, and a programming device. The type of input modules or points used by a PLC depend upon the types of input devices used. Some input modules or points respond to digital inputs, also called discrete inputs, which are either on or off. Other modules or inputs respond to analog signals.

These analog signals represent machine or process conditions as a range of voltage or current values.

The primary function of a PLC’s input circuitry is to convert the signals provided by these various switches and sensors into logic signals that can be used by the CPU. The CPU evaluates the status of inputs, outputs, and other variables as it executes a stored program. The CPU then sends signals to update the status of outputs.

Output modules convert control signals from the CPU into digital or analog values that can be used to control various output devices.

The programming device is used to enter or change the PLC’s program or to monitor or change stored values. Once entered, the program and associated variables are stored in the CPU. In addition to these basic elements, a PLC system may also incorporate an operator interface device of some sort to simplify monitoring of the machine or process.

In the simple example shown below, pushbuttons (sensors) connected to PLC inputs, are used to start and stop a motor connected to a PLC output through a motor starter (actuator). No programming device or operator interface are shown in this simple example.


Hard-Wired Control

Prior to PLCs, many control tasks were performed by contactors, control relays and other electromechanical devices. This is often referred to as hard-wired control.

Circuit diagrams had to be designed, electrical components specified and installed, and wiring lists created. Electricians would then wire the components necessary to perform a specific task. If an error was made, the wires had to be reconnected correctly. A change in function or system expansion required extensive component changes and rewiring.


Advantages of PLCs

PLCs not only are capable of performing the same tasks as hard-wired control, but are also capable of many more complex applications. In addition, the PLC program and electronic communication lines replace much of the interconnecting wires required by hard-wired control.

Therefore, hard-wiring, though still required to connect field devices, is less intensive. This also makes correcting errors and modifying the application easier.

Some of the additional advantages of PLCs are as follows:

  • Smaller physical size than hard-wire solutions.
  • Easier and faster to make changes.
  • PLCs have integrated diagnostics and override functions.
  • Diagnostics are centrally available.
  • Applications can be immediately documented.
  • Applications can be duplicated faster and less expensively.

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Function block One of the official and widely used PLC programming languages is Function Block Diagram (FBD). It is a simple and graphical way to program any functions together in a PLC program. Function Block Diagram is easy to learn and provides a lot of possibilities.
As one of the official PLC programming languages described in IEC 61131-3, FBD is fundamental for all PLC programmers. It is a great way to implement everything from logic to timers, PID controllers etc.
Most engineers love FBD because it is graphically a very common way to describe a system. Engineers like to put things in boxes. And that is exactly what the concept of function block diagrams is.
In this tutorial I will introduce you to some of the basic principles of FBD programming and the function blocks.

What is Function Block Diagram?

From systems engineering you might already know something also called function block diagrams. PLC function block diagram is not that different from it. What FBD offers is a way to put functions written with many lines of code into boxes.
Thereby we can easily connect them, to make a bigger PLC program.
As with ladder logic and structured text, function block diagrams or FBD is described in the standard IEC 61131-3 by PLCOpen. Most PLC programs are written with some amount of FBD. Because, even though you might write your functions in structured text. You still, most of the times, have to connect those functions.

Function Blocks

In FBD all functions are put into function blocks. They all have one or more inputs and outputs. The function of the block is the relation between the state of its inputs and outputs.
Here’s how a simple function block could look like:
Function block illustration in FBD

Function block illustration in FBD
The function block is illustrated with a box. In the middle of the box is often a symbol or a text. This symbol represents the actual functionality of the function block.
Depending on the function there can be any number of inputs and outputs on the function block. You can connect the output of one function block to the input of another. Thereby creating a Function Block Diagram.
There are many standard function blocks provided in FBD.But you can also make your own function blocks. Often, you will have to use the same piece of code in your PLC program multiple times. It could be a function for controlling a valve, a motor etc. With function blocks you can make a function block specific for a motor and use it several times.

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Combining function blocks to make a basic function block diagram

VFD is a power electronics based device which converts a basic fixed frequency, fixed voltage sine wave power (line power) to a variable frequency, variable output voltage used to control speed of induction motor(s). It regulates the speed of a three phase induction motor by controlling the frequency and voltage of the power supplied to the motor.
Since the number of pole is constant the speed Ns can be varied by continuously changing frequency. Variable Frequency Drive
Related pages
Variable Frequency Drive or VFD

Working of Variable Frequency Drive

Any Variable Frequency Drive or VFD incorporates following three stages for controlling a three phase induction motor.

Rectifier Stage

A full-wave power diode based solid-state rectifier converts three-phase 50 Hz power from a standard 220, 440 or higher utility supply to either fixed or adjustable DC voltage. The system may include transformers for high voltage system.

Inverter Stage

Power electronic switches such as IGBT, GTO or SCR switch the DC power from rectifier on and off to produce a current or voltage waveform at the required new frequency. Presently most of the voltage source inverters (VSI) use pulse width modulation (PWM) because the current and voltage waveform at output in this scheme is approximately a sine wave. Power Electronic switches such as IGBT; GTO etc. switch DC voltage at high speed, producing a series of short-width pulses of constant amplitude. Output voltage is varied by varying the gain of the inverter. Output frequency is adjusted by changing the number of pulses per half cycle or by varying the period for each time cycle.
The resulting current in an induction motor simulates a sine wave of the desired output frequency. The high speed switching action of a PWM inverter results in less waveform distortion and hence decreases harmonic losses.

Control System

Its function is to control output voltage i.e. voltage vector of inverter being fed to motor and maintain a constant ratio of voltage to frequency (V/Hz). It consists of an electronic circuit which receives feedback information from the driven motor and adjusts the output voltage or frequency to the desired values. Control system may be based on SPWM (Sine Wave PWM), SVPWM (Space Vector modulated PWM) or some soft computing based algorithm.

Induction Motor Characteristic under Variable Frequency Drive

In an induction motor induced in stator, E is proportional to the product of the slip frequency and the air gap flux. The terminal voltage can be considered proportional to the product of the slip frequency and flux, if stator drop is neglected. Any reduction in the supply frequency without a change in the terminal voltage causes an increase in the air gap flux which will cause magnetic saturation of motor. Also the torque capability of motor is decreased. Hence while controlling a motor with the help of VFD or Variable Frequency Drive we always keep the V/f ratio constant. Now define variable ‘K’ as, For operation below K < 1 i.e. below rated frequency we have constant flux operation. For this we maintain constant magnetization current Im for all operating points. For K > 1 i.e. above rated frequency we maintain terminal voltage V rated constant. In this field is weakened in the inverse ratio of per unit frequency ‘K’. For values of K = 1 we have constant torque operation and above that we have constant power application. vfd

Merits of using Variable Frequency Drives

Energy Saving

Primary function of VFD in industry is to provide smooth control along with energy savings. The variable speed motor drive system is more efficient than all other flow control methods including valves, turbines, hydraulic transmissions, dampers, etc. Energy cost savings becomes more pronounced in variable-torque ID fan and pump applications, where the load’s torque and power is directly proportional to the square and cube of the speed respectively.

Increased Reliability

Adjustable speed motor-drive systems are more reliable than traditional mechanical approaches such as using valves, gears, louvers or turbines to control speed and flow. Unlike mechanical control system they don’t have any moving parts hence they are highly reliable.

Speed Variations

Beyond energy saving, applications such as crushers, conveyors and grinding mills can use the motor and VFD’s packages to provide optimal speed variations. In some crucial applications, the operating speed range can be wide, which a motor supplied with a constant frequency power source cannot provide. In the case of conveyors and mills, a VFD and motor system can even provide a “crawl” speed foe maintenance purposes eliminating the need for additional drives.

Soft Starting

When Variable Frequency Drives start large motors, the drawbacks associated with large inrush current i.e. starting current (winding stress, winding overheating and voltage dip on connected bus) is eliminated. This reduces chances of insulation or winding damage and provides extended motor life.

Extended Machine Life and Less Maintenance

The VFD’s greatly reduce wear to the motor, increase life of the equipment and decrease maintenance costs. Due to optimal voltage and frequency control it offers better protection to the motor from issues such as electro thermal overloads, phase faults, over voltage, under voltage etc. When we start a motor (on load) with help of a VFD, the motor is not subjected to “instant shock” hence there is less wear and tear of belt, gear and pulley system.

High Power Factor

Power converted to rotation, heat, sound, etc. is called active power and is measured in kilowatts (kW). Power that charges builds magnetic fields or charges capacitor is called reactive power and is measured in kVAR. The vector sum of the kW and the kVAR is the Apparent Power and is measured in KVA. Power factor is the ratio of kW/KVA. Typical AC motors may have a full load power factor ranging from 0.7 to 0.8. As the motor load is reduced, the power factor becomes low. The advantage of using VFD’s is that it includes capacitors in the DC Bus itself which maintains high power factor on the line side of the Variable Frequency Drive. This eliminates the need of additional expensive capacitor banks.

Slip Power Recovery

The fundamental power given to rotor by stator is called air gap power Pg. The mechanical power developed is given by The term ‘sP’ is called slip power. Slip power recovery SchemeIf the slip is very large i.e. speed is low then there is ample waste of power, a common example is kiln drives of cement industry. This power can be saved through slip recovery scheme. In this scheme slip power is first collected through brushes of WRIM. This slip power recovered is then rectified and inverted back to line frequency and is injected into supply through coupling transformer. The scheme is shown in figure below.

Applications of Variable Frequency Drive

  1. They are mostly used in industries for large induction motor (dealing with variable load) whose power rating ranges from few kW to few MW.
  2. Variable Frequency Drive is used in traction system. In India it is being used by Delhi Metro Rail Corporation.
  3. They are also used in modern lifts, escalators and pumping systems.
  4. Nowadays they are being also used in energy efficient refrigerators, AC’s and Outside-air Economizers.

SCADA Market will grow at CAGR of 6.6% from 2017 to 2022 to be worth $13.43 billion by 2022. Key driving factors for SCADA market are increased demand for industrial, increasing adoption of cloud, increasing infrastructure development, and rising adoption of Industry 4.0 using SCADA system.

The SCADA market is expected to grow at a CAGR of 6.6% between 2017 and 2022 to be worth USD 13.43 billion by 2022. The key driving factors for the growth of the SCADA market are increased demand for industrial mobility for remotely managing the process industry, increasing adoption of cloud computing in SCADA system, increasing infrastructure development in terms of smart cities and transportation, and rising adoption of Industry 4.0 using SCADA system. However, the high investment cost for setting up of SCADA system, and declining and fluctuating oil and gas prices are considered to be the major restraints for the SCADA market.
Remote terminal unit is expected to hold a major share of the market by 2022. The digital and analog parameters of the field or plant such as the open or close state of a nozzle or the temperatures of particular equipment are monitored with the help of an RTU, which further transmits the data to a central monitoring station of SCADA system. The major share of RTU in the SCADA market is attributed to its ability to enables efficient decision-making for the operator.
The services market is expected to hold the largest size of the SCADA market in 2017. Due to continuous development in technologies used in manufacturing processes and increasing demand for variation in the products, the demand for services of SCADA is increasing. Services in SCADA also include increased security system and latest technology adoption, which enable the SCADA system to remain up to date according to new changes.

The market for the water and wastewater application is expected to grow at the highest rate between 2017 and 2022. SCADA systems are used in water treatment plants as well as in wastewater treatment for constantly monitoring and regulating the water flow, reservoir levels, and pipe pressure, among others. The treatment of water and wastewater requires large amounts of energy; SCADA helps reduce this energy consumption and automates system operations.
The SCADA market in the APAC region is expected to grow at the highest rate between 2017 and 2022. The demand for SCADA systems is very high in APAC owing to the increase in the number of manufacturing plants in various sectors such as power and pharmaceuticals. The implementation of automation is increasing in APAC because of the rising demand for high-quality products along with increased production rates. It also helps in the reduction of labor costs and human interference.

Breakdown of the profiles of primary participants for the report has been given below:

  • By Company Type: Tier 1 = 54%, Tier 2= 26%, and Tier 3 = 20%
  • By Designation: C-Level Executives = 56%, Directors = 28%, and Others = 16%
  • By Region: North America = 42%, Europe = 30%, APAC = 23%, and RoW = 5%

The key players in the SCADA market include ABB (Switzerland), Alstom (France), Emerson Electric Co. (US), General Electric Co. (US), Honeywell International Inc. (US), Iconics Inc. (US), Omron Corporation (Japan), Rockwell Automation Inc. (US) Schneider Electric SE (France), Siemens AG (Germany), and Yokogawa Electric Corporation (Japan).

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